Reasons Why People Make Custom Challenge Coins – March 23rd, 2015

One of the most common types of coin is the challenge coin. According to widespread stories, these coins originated around the period of World War I. They are a kind of medallion engraved with an emblem, used by military officers as proof of their membership in their units. These days, these coins are tailor-made to fit different needs. It is indeed true that custom challenge coins are a great way for any group to boost their spirits. These coins could be used in a church, school, business establishments and many other organizations. They give a feeling to their members that they belong and that they are united.

While these challenge coins are eye-catching, it doesn’t mean that they are only used for decorative purposes. So for knowing more about coins visit Establishments or groups use these coins with their slogan and logo printed on them. Wearing challenge coins serve wonderful purposes. As mentioned earlier, the trend of using challenge coins began in the military a long time ago. The United States Air Force was the first to adopt the use of challenge coins for their servicemen. They were mostly given to show appreciation to their soldiers.

Custom Challenge CoinsSoon after, each military unit generated their own custom challenge coins that have their chosen features such as background, motto, color, and design. At present, establishments use challenge coins for practically every reason. These coins are used by various companies for campaigns, to give awards, and for their membership. Challenge coins symbolize bravery and camaraderie. They are also given to those who have done great on their assigned task.

Even Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO’s), churches and schools use challenge coins for noble causes. A lot of non-profit groups sell challenge coins to raise funds or promote their service. For instance, there are NGO’s that run campaigns for breast cancer awareness each year. Members of these NGO’s wear custom challenge coins to show that they recognize the breast cancer survivors and the people who are suffering against it every day. Different groups create their own challenge coins that serve a certain purpose. They could be about a global problem, but the color, design, text, graphics, etc. exclusively belong to that specific group.

In the same way, many people also purchase custom challenge coins for special events. These coins are used by families to make their gathering even more unforgettable. Valentine’s Day, Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Year’s Day are some of the special occasions wherein people use challenge coins. A lot of small to big establishments use them to advertise their existing and forthcoming products and services. Challenge coins are very valuable nowadays. Even if these coins are inexpensive, they are significant items that help the company in their marketing strategy.

Challenge coins are also being used on wedding occasions. Some people who get married want these coins to be exchanged in their special event. Normally, they would want to have their challenge coins plated with gold or silver on this kind of occasion. Also, some people have a collection of challenge coins as their hobby. More and more are being enticed in collecting these coins because they find them beautiful. The rarer and older a challenge coin is, the better it is for the collectors.

The affordable price and endless selection are just two of the many reasons why challenge coins are becoming more and more well-known. There are millions of choices for anyone if they want to have custom challenge coins. They can make their own designs, put their logo, choose the colors, text, shape, and even set the kind of metal to be used. Simply put, there are many ways to make such fascinating tokens.

Posted in Military

Importance of Communication in HR Certification Training – February 3rd, 2015

Human resource is one of the most important departments in a company. One of the roles of the department is to contribute to the professional development of the employees so they can help achieve the company’s goals. Communication is an important part of HR certification training. After all, HR personnel spend a lot of their time communicating with employees and managers. They are responsible for transmitting important information from the managerial position to the other employees.

HR Certification TrainingThe HR department is also directly involved in making sure that the employees are motivated to work and achieve the goal of the organization. Certification and training that involves improving communication skills can have a great impact in cultivating good relationship with employees.

Effective communication can be defined as the ability to speak and write in all areas of business including technical, clerical, managerial and social aspects. The ability to communicate well is a great advantage to anyone who poses it.

An organization is composed of people who are associated for a single purpose. Many of the organizations’ activities rely on effective communication. It is needed to exchange information, ideas, rules and proposals.

Role of Communication in HR

Information delegation

The human resource department can benefit in HR certification training that involves communication training. Human resource personnel can be tasked to delegate information to employees about managerial expectations and rules. These types of information should be transmitted seamlessly so that no misunderstanding occurs.

Cultivating good employee relations

One of the main tasks of a manager is to create a suitable working relationship among employees so that they can be more productive. This also helps increase their job satisfaction and morale. The human resource department can be tasked to think of programs like team building activities to nurture the relationship between employees. Being able to communicate well is an essential part in making these activities a success.

Encourage employee goal setting

Having an HR certification training that focuses on communication might seem unnecessary, but this important aspect is where HR personnel have to excel in. An HR personnel needs to communicate with employees to motivate them to do their job well. This includes providing proper information and clarifying the task that needs to be done. Communication is essential in implementing goals. Misunderstanding can be the result of miscommunication which can cost the company valuable resources.

Types of communication in human resource

There are several types of communication including oral, written, verbal and non-verbal communication.

  • Oral communication

Oral communication involves relating ideas and information in a spoken manner. It includes face to face or telephonic interactions. Oral communication also includes discussions, speeches and video calls. Oral communication can also include visual aids. HR certification training is essential to teach HR personnel on how to conduct interviews and how to make offers.

  • Written communication

Written communication involves any type of interaction that uses written words. Reports, e-mails and memos are the best types of written communication. Certification training can help you improve your written communication skills so that you can deliver messages in a concise manner.

  • Verbal communication

Verbal communication is where you use words to present ideas. Effective verbal communication depends on many factors that include both non-verbal communication and interpersonal skills. Many languages include sounds and gestures that they use to communicate with others.

  • Non-verbal communication

The HR certification training should also focus on non-verbal communication. This type of communication happens when a person uses neither written nor spoken words to convey ideas and thoughts. Non-verbal communication includes eye contact, facial expression and body language.  It is important to also focus on non-verbal communication since people tend to judge others by their actions.

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Posted in Technology

Why Buy Enobosarm to Gain Lean Muscle? – January 21st, 2015

You might be wondering why athletes buy Enobosarm. This article will provide you with the information that you need. Ostarine or Enobosarm is a Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) produced by GTx Inc., which is presently in the investigational stages of development. A Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator is exactly what it looks like – a compound which has the capability to boost the androgen receptor the same way anabolic steroids do. Unfortunately, because of its status as a drug which is still in the development stage, the majority of the studies carried out on it have only involved animal trials.

EnobosarmEnobosarm is an orally active SARM which has anabolic effects on the bone and muscle tissue. It does not have any measurable effect on LH (lutenizing hormone) or FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone), but it shows some effect on prostate weight, with an androgenic potency of 1/3rd of its anabolic potency. That seems to be a good trade-off since its anabolic effect has been determined to be somewhat similar to testosterone, want to know more about the good effects visit It also produces dose-dependent increases in bone mineral density and mechanical strength, aside from its capability to decrease body fat and increase lean body mass. The duration of effects on humans is short, at around 4 hours only. The substance has only gone through phase-II clinical testings.

Using the Substance for Muscle Mass

Most people who work out in the gym normally buy Enobosarm to increase their muscle mass. In the past years, there has been an increased growth in the bodybuilding industry. There are some great developments being made every year in the bodybuilding supplement industry. Getting in shape with the use of Enobosarm is very convenient. Check out some forums and find out what people are saying about this product.

How the Substance Works?

Before you buy enobosarm it is best that you know how it works. This substance has potential use for all aspects of male hormone replacement therapy, and might replace testosterone in the future for this purpose. At present, there is no accepted test for SARMs, sports lovers who undergo drug testing would find it to be the best suitable replacement for anabolic steroids. It does not affect the FSH or the LH, so it could be a highly useful anabolic agent that can be used while trying post-cycle therapy.

Enobosarm provides its effects in a very anabolic manner, as compared to other SARMS. One reason is that it does not only increase the muscle mass, but it also has a positive effect on bones and joints, as well as in nitrogen retention. The majority of steroidal androgens convert to estrogens or DHT. This only means that you have the chance to experience DHT related side effects, such as an increase in prostate size and hair loss. Some of the estrogen-related side effects include hypertension, water retention, and the hard-to-remedy enlargement of the male breast tissue. To restore the right testosterone levels, you need to undergo a proper Post Cycle Therapy protocol. The user might still experience the effects of impotence for many months until full testosterone recovery is achieved.

Enobosarm for Bone and Tendon Repair

One of the outstanding features of Enobosarm is that it does not only build muscle, but it also increases tendon strength, increases bone density, improves the health of the ligaments, and increases the rate at which collagen is turned over. In order to achieve those, a daily dose of 12mg is enough, as it promotes improvement in joint movement that can be seen after 6 to 8 days. The substance is very effective in treating injuries, such as shin splints, and it is used during post operation to maintain muscle and speed up limb recovery. If you are one of those who need to recover from a limb operation and you want to speed up your recovery, then buy enobosarm now. This substance is anabolic, potent, and effective. It lets you gain lean muscles and, at the same time, increases your bone density.

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Posted in Chemicals

Before Buying Golf Equipment: Things to Think About – January 20th, 2015

There are plenty of things that people need to think about when they plan on buying a piece or several pieces of golf equipment. Just walking into a store or going on the internet and looking at which golf product has the most number of stars from customers is not the wisest nor best course of action for those who plan on buying new equipment.

Golf is a sport of a thousand details. Companies spend fortunes in order to make some of the best golf products possible. They constantly try to outdo one another by introducing new innovations or refinements to their products, for the sake of giving their customers the edge they need in order to succeed.

Do not fret though, getting a good sense for buying the right pieces of golf equipment is not rocket science. All a person has to do is keep some of these things in mind to put them and keep them on the right track.

Identifying the needs

A person should first look at what he actually needs before going out there to buy clubs and gear. For example, a beginner would most likely want to buy a good set of golf clubs. For the unaware, a standard set of golf clubs would consist of seven irons, three woods, a single hybrid, and of course one putter.

golf equipmentMaking a list of needs will make it easier for a person to narrow his search once he starts looking for the right piece of golf equipment. Listing down the needs should be an easy enough task for anyone, perhaps even a beginner. That said, a little bit of research on the different kinds of equipment wouldn’t really hurt.

Taking a look at the skill level

Another thing people need to take a look at is themselves. No, this is not about being all introspective and thinking about the purpose of life. This is about looking at one’s own level of skill.

A beginner who buys a club that was designed and built for a pro would not be able to use the club to its full potential. To put it simply, people really need to be aware of where they are in terms of skill and buy equipment that’s appropriate for their level. People should avoid simply throwing around cash and buying what the cut out of some famous professional golf player is telling them to buy.

Keep things simple and most of all keep it real. Beginners should stick with what is meant for beginners.

Going for a club fitting

People who do not really understand what things to consider when getting new golfing equipment would probably want to do a club fitting. Club fitting is the process whereby a professional helps someone buy the right golf equipment through “fitting.”

It involves a lot of scientific mumbo jumbo, but the short of it is that people will be tailored to their clubs almost in the same way tailors tailor a suit to a person. This goes a long way in helping improve a person’s swing.

Setting the budget

Budget is another issue that people ought to look into. The budget for golf clubs is heavily influenced by the amount of dedication one intends to invest in the sport.

Some people, for example, tend to take up golf as a hobby. Something that they will only do on their spare time to keep themselves relaxed, a form of recreation so to speak. These people don’t really need to invest a lot in their equipment.

Then there are those who plan to make it their livelihood or take things seriously because of love for the game. These people will set a higher budget for their golf equipment.

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Posted in Sports

5 Valuable Tips In Designing Your Custom Lanyards – January 20th, 2015

Thanksgiving and Christmas are fast approaching, and now is the best time to plan your gifts for your family and your clients and employees. If you are thinking of giving away custom lanyards to your clients, or maybe you were tasked to design the custom lanyards for your company then you need to make sure that you are making the right choices when it comes to their designs.To make the design process a bit easier, here are some tips that you can use:

1. Consider the following factors when you are making the design:

a. Occasion –

Custom lanyardsAre the lanyards going to be used as the company’s corporate giveaways during the holidays? Or maybe you’re planning to distribute them to vacationing students during Spring break? Your lanyard designs should complement the occasion, and this could be done easily just by choosing colors that match the seasons. Red or green during Christmas, for instance. Light or pastel colors during spring. Or, black or dark colors during Halloween. You could also add symbols or characters on the lanyards that commemorate the occasions, like hearts during Valentine’s or a pine tree during Christmas.

b. Recipients –

Are the recipients old, young adults, or school age children? You could make the custom lanyards look formal, fashionable or playful according to the recipients’ preferences. There is a lanyard that would fit any personality or age.

c. Budget –

All custom lanyards are actually affordable. However, if you prefer the most expensive material and style of printing, you can expect to add anywhere between a couple of cents or a dollar or more per piece in your orders.

2. Match the design with the theme.

After all, one of the reasons why your company chose to use custom lanyards as corporate giveaways is to promote itself. Make sure that the lanyards carry the logo, name and if possible, the tagline of your company. Try not to deviate from the company’s overall look or style. On the other hand, if you are designing them for your family holiday get together, stick to the party’s theme or motif to complement the event.

3. Make it unique and appealing.

The beauty of customized lanyards is that could add personal touches to them. Lanyards could make events more intimate and personal. There are different styles and colors of lanyards that can suit any kind of occasion. Mix-and-match designs and colors until you come up with a design that will suit your needs and taste.

4. Should be reader-friendly–

Sometimes, the designers focus too much on the color and materials of the lanyards. Remember though that the recipients and other people are need to be able to see and read what was printed on the lanyards. Make sure that the fonts are big enough. Avoid script font styles as they can be hard to read, especially when they are small, like on a lanyard. If you plan to give them as gifts to the elderly, then you should choose lanyards that are at least an inch wide. This is so you can make the fonts bigger for the recipients to appreciate what is printed on them.

5. Updated fashion–

One reason why lanyards are gaining popularity is its overall contribution to fashion. Most lanyards can be made to complement different kinds of outfits. You can also design your lanyards in such a way that they would have the updated, voguish look that the recipients would appreciate. Take note however that lanyards that have a conservative and traditional can be quite fashionable too. Simply lessen the elaborate designs, use plain fonts, and choose the regular style. There are still many recipients who prefer this old-fashioned look of lanyards.

With these simple tips, you are now ready to start making your own lanyard design.

Posted in Product

The Pros and Cons of Moveable Cubicles – January 17th, 2015

Movable cubicles are designed as storage solutions when you need additional and instant space to house your things, whether for a short or long period of time. These containers are made out of 12-gauge corrugated steel plus they are wind and water resistant, therebyensuring safety of your stored goods.

According to studies and statistics, more and more people and companies are resorting to movable cubicles for their storage problems. As with all products and services, there are positive and negative sides to consider. It would be to your advantage if all angles would be taken into consideration prior to availing of these containers as your storage solutions.

Here are some points to ponder before you decide to rent or purchase a moveable cubicle.

movable cubiclesTake a look at the up sides of the cubicles. First, consider the easy accessibility of your goods, documents, merchandise or whatever it is that you stored since the containers are placed within your property or location of your choice. If you have a vacant lot or space of around 80 feet long, 10 feet wide, and 14 feet tall, then you qualify to have these cubicles to be delivered to you. This could save you money, especially when the storage space you need is just for a limited time only.

For example, when your office is under renovation and you need to secure the documents but every now and then, you still need to have access to those documents. Then the easy storage solution is movable cubicles. A movable cubicle can even be converted into a temporary office space just by requesting for specialized walls for an additional fee. The containers have floors made of wooden planks and there are openings for ventilation, making them suitable for temporary offices.

Or maybe you are awaiting the completion of construction of your new house. You can temporarily place your appliances and furniture into these containers. Arrange them in such a way that those things you would need are placed near the door of the containers.

Accessibility to your stored goods is one big factor of movable cubicles.

Another advantage is the low cost. Some companies offer as low as $15-20 per month with the first month at less than $5, as a promo. This amount is tantamount to being insignificant when you consider renting an apartment or office space to house your goods or documents.

However, there are down sides to these as well. For instance, there are many complaints and records of break-ins and theft associated with movable cubicles. Although these containers come with special locks, other security measures such as alarms and security cameras are seldom applicable to these. Robbers find it easier to gain entry to these containers especially if they are located in unguarded, vacant lots.

Other disadvantages include special requirements to avail of these containers such as permits being asked by some cities or counties so that you can have these containers on your property. Acquisition of these permits isthe responsibility of the people who plan to rent or purchase these containers.

There are also charges for deliveries and pick-ups of these containers that the renters need to pay up front. Plus, the processing time from order to delivery could take about a week. Make sure that you allot at least seven days to notify a company of your intent to rent or buy a container.

These moveable containers may be the storage solutions that you need. However, doing your homework to measure and consider all factors before you rent or buy could benefit you in the long run. Weigh the pros and cons before you make the final decision.

Posted in Logistics

How Soon Should You Hire a Long Island Foreclosure Attorney? – January 1st, 2015

Your home is one of the biggest investments that you will make in your lifetime. Even if you know that the mortgage will get a huge chunk out of your monthly salary, the thought of having a house that you can call your own and having the security of a home when you retire without needing to pay for rent are great aspirations that you can certainly achieve by making some sacrifices today.

With the high cost of prices, seldom will you see a person buy a house in cash. He will either course a loan through the bank or through a private lending company that offers low interest. Once the down payment is made, the home owner or creditor will then be responsible for paying the monthly mortgage. With your present financial standing mainly due to a good paying job, meeting that obligation may seem so easy. However, as they say, you can never predict the future. You may suddenly lose that job or suffer a major financial blow that could leave you with just enough monthly income to cover for your food and other basic needs. As result, you will start to be negligent in paying for your mortgage and your lender may send you a notice of foreclosure.

Long Island foreclosure attorneyThat notice may seem like a nightmare to you. The investment that you worked so hard for is now being taken from you. Do you surrender or do you fight? If you believe that your current financial problem is only temporary and that you will eventually be able to bounce back and pay for your home, then by all means fight that foreclosure. This is why it is utterly important that you hire a Long Island foreclosure attorney immediately after you receive that notice.

There are many advantages you can expect from promptly getting the help of a professional and well experienced Long Island foreclosure attorney. First, you will learn clearly and quickly what your options are. Your attorney can explain to you the many options, including their pros and cons.

You have to remember that how your Long Island foreclosure attorney proceeds will depend on your decision. Therefore, listen hard and weigh your choices so that you can come to a wise conclusion. If your decision is to fight the foreclosure and keep your home, your attorney can proceed in that direction. He can either file a motion for the dismissal of the foreclosure or he can speak with your lender to negotiate a credit modification.

The chance to file for a motion for a dismissal has a limited time frame from the moment you receive the notice. This usually ranges from twenty to thirty days. If you have a good attorney, he can stretch this and ask for an extension. However, there will be no need for that if you act on the notice of foreclosure right away and hire a lawyer to represent you.

A credit modification, on the other hand, requires direct negotiation with your lender and no one can do this better than your Long Island foreclosure attorney. With his long experience, facing such situation and bargaining for a reasonable cost will be easy for him. Your objective here is to avoid the inconvenience of facing the court and going through the long foreclosure process. A loan modification is simply a restructuring of your loan to make your monthly mortgage more affordable. This may, however, result to a longer loan term or having the obligation to pay a lump sum on a later date. Whichever it may be, this option is still better than losing your home.

If you do decide to fight your foreclosure in court, your attorney can still do wonders and make you win it. That is a risk that you have to take, though. Either way, you can be sure that you are in good hands if a knowledgeable and an expert attorney is defending you. Therefore, when faced with a foreclosure, do not think twice. Hire a lawyer right away to help you with the succeeding steps that you have to take.

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Posted in Legal

How to Be a Part of the Great Neck Real Estate Empire – December 30th, 2014

It’s not surprising if you ask teenagers and even kids these days what they want to be when they grow up and finish school: many would want to become real estate agents. Why not? Being an agent entails your own time, management, and pace. Whatever you earn depends on your hard work and energy, and it’s not even hard labor at its worse.

What’s even better is that when one decides to become an agent for real estate, it’s like a stepping stone to become a future successful realtor. Find out how to be a part of the Great Neck real estate empire and how you can work your way to the top with hard work, dedication, a little luck and lots of flying colors.

real estateWhy Great Neck, New York? Well, because first of all, the state is home to potential wealth in real estate and numerous opportunities for impressive profits in the business. Before anything else, you need to acquire a license in order to become a real estate agent. In the state of New York, this process is not rocket science. In order to obtain one, you must meet with the criteria that the state requires so you can have your license and get on with your dream job.

Great Neck real estate and in other communities as well require applicants to be more than 18 years old, and one should be a resident of the country. It’s the usual protocol even in other states, plus, you must not have any felony convictions or records charged against you, whether in New York or in any other state for that matter.

Obtaining a license, especially in Great Neck real estate calls for up to 75 hours worth of training from a given set of approved courses and examinations. This applies to those who have obtained training before July 1, 2008, in which case, 45-50 hours of training and examination is enough to accomplish what the estate requires.

If you have completed a total of 45 hours before the July 1, 2008 margin period, you will be subject to remedial course sessions which can take up to 30-40 hours in order to accomplish what is required of you to obtain your license.

Now if you have finished a bachelor’s degree in real estate, you shall be exempted from the 75-hour training requirement. All you need to do is to present your complete course outline in college, plus your passing grades; otherwise you will be subject to the 75-hour course requirement. After you have accomplished the required 75 training hours, you will have to take and pass a qualifying or entrance examination conducted by Great Neck real estate or the department responsible for it.

So once you have met with what the criteria for licensure calls for plus all the needed academic records and training program, you will then apply for real estate salesperson licensure.

You will have to present your notice of admission to the exam plus the clearance slip with your filled out application form and fee. A license fee of $50 which is good for two years will then be issued to you. Lastly, you have to provide legitimate proof of sponsorship from a New York broker after all is said and done. This is the final requirement. If you cannot provide such, you won’t be able to practice as a real estate agent in the state of New York. Good luck on your application and future promising career!

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Posted in Real Estate

The Funeral Process: How Does It Go? – December 30th, 2014

A loved one’s death is a very difficult and painful thing to accept. Sometimes, it can take up to several years before a relative can cope up with it. It can depend on how the person died. Funerals are done to honor and celebrate a deceased person’s life. The history of funerals is as old as the entire human race’s history. During the Prehistoric period, people already have knowledge on how to arrange funerals. Some funeral customs remained while others were not practiced anymore. Before a dead person can be laid to his final resting place, there are several processes that must be done to have an organized funeral ceremony.

When a person is confirmed dead, it’s very important to call or look for a funeral home that will help relatives in planning and arranging the funeral. During the previous centuries, there were no funeral homes responsible for preparing the dead person for a funeral ceremony. Nowadays, these establishments are here to provide funeral services for those who need them. After calling a funeral home, its staff will transport the body there to prepare for the funeral. The staff will also consult the relatives to discuss funeral arrangements.

cremationFor deaths involving crimes, bodies are taken to coroners for autopsies and investigations before preparing them for funeral rites. Funeral homes are also in-charge of processing important documents (e.g. death certificates) and informing other people about the death by posting it in newspapers. They are also the ones who contact airline companies and embassies for those who died in foreign countries. After getting the body from its place of death, morticians take off the clothes and belongings of the dead before the embalming process begins. The deceased person’s things are then brought to relatives.

Embalming is the process of preserving human remains to prevent decomposition. It is believed that the Ancient Egyptians were the ones who started it. The process requires morticians to drain body fluids (e.g. blood) first, before injecting certain embalming fluids necessary for corpse preservation. During the 19th century, arsenic was used for embalming, but other chemicals later replaced it. Nowadays, Majority of funeral homes use Formaldehyde and Methanol for creating an embalming fluid.

Some morticians wash the body first before embalming the dead. They do it especially if the body is dirty or injured. After embalming, they dress the deceased person. The clothes that will be used can be the dead’s own clothes. The morticians add cottons to some body parts to prevent leaks. They also put eye caps to prevent the eyes from sinking and mouth formers to ensure proper mouth formation.

After dressing the dead, makeup is then applied to make the dead’s appearance more presentable. The hair is also fixed. Morticians ensure that all the injuries will be concealed, as well. Relatives, on the other hand, will choose the casket and decide whether the body will be cremated or buried in a cemetery. Once their done selecting a casket, the body is placed on it. Some cremations may not require caskets anymore.

Funeral directors usually add prayer cards and the deceased person’s photos near the casket. A wake may last for a few days or a week while the funeral arrangement can take up to a day or more. Necrological services are usually done before a person is buried. After the wake, funeral homes prepare the dead for funeral procession. They usually use limousines to take the dead to the cemetery. Sometimes, they are also the ones in-charge of playing funeral songs or the dead’s favorite song. After doing those things, the dead is then finally laid to rest.

Posted in Society

What are Printed Circuit Boards? – December 23rd, 2014

We are now living in a world that is supported by technology. Everywhere we look, we have electronic gadgets assisting us in one form or another. People that are on the go will surely have a cellular phone, whether it is the newest model or one of the older releases. No task will be done properly without the aid of a computer. These devices that we use have microchips and other electronic components to make them all do what they are supposed to do, and for them to work, we use printed circuit boards.

Printed circuit boards are boards that are made from non-conductive material and are “printed” with a conductive metal, which is usually copper, in between the boards, and afterwards all electronic components are attached to it to create a working circuit. This is what connects all components of an electronic device to make it run properly.

Printed circuit boardYou can compare the patterns that you’ll see in circuit boards to how the electronic wiring of a house is installed. All the electric wires will be within the walls of the house and these wires are all connected to make light bulbs and electronic outlets work as well. The wires within the walls will be protected from anyone that might touch it and it is also isolated from other possible interferences. The pattern on a circuit board is similar to a house’s electrical wiring, but unlike a house, the “wires” used are the metal etchings on the board. This helps in keeping the paths for electricity organized and this helps in making sure that the circuits will stay connected.

Printed circuit boards were first thought of during the 1850’s. During that time, the electronic components would be attached to wooden boards and they would be connected together using metal rods underneath. Eventually, the rods were replaced with wires which would then be screwed to the bottom using screw terminals of the boards, which is now made of metal. Circuit boards opened up the possibility of newer designs for electronic devices and complex connections for each electronic component.

Paul Eisler of the United Kingdom was able to have a patent of etching a circuit on a layer of copper foil that is bonded to a glass base back in 1943. This idea was then widely used when transistors were introduced, which gave way to possibly making electronic devices smaller still.

While developing these circuit boards, different connecting methods were thought of and two were developed: the Through-Hole Technology and the Surface-Mount Technology.

Through-Mount Technology would have a lead part of the component inserted into a certain area of the circuit board, where there is a hole to put it through. Afterwards, it will then be soldered into place at the opposite side. The soldering is done either by hand or automatically by machine.

Surface-Mount Technology is done by “stamping,” or placing the electronic components directly onto the side of a circuit board. This is now commonly used so that production time and cost can be saved and that smaller devices can be developed faster.

For designing printed circuit boards, the designer has to consider the size of the board, the number of components that will be attached to it and how the pathways of the circuit will be placed within the board. Designers will need to make sure that the pathways that they will design will not overlap with other components and that there will be adequate space between the components. Through this method, some designers will even come up with designs that can be used to create smaller gadgets but will not destroy the quality of their performance.

Posted in Electronics