Avalonia – n. A separate plate in the Early Paleozoic consisting of a lot of Northern Europe, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and some coastal elements of New England. Although the paleogeographic model confirms the standard view that India turned progressively extra remoted from the major landmasses throughout the Cretaceous and Paleocene, it’s probably that at numerous times minor physiographic options (principally ocean islands) provided causeways and/or stepping-stone trails alongside which land animals could have migrated to/from the sub-continent.
Utilizing probably the most up-to-the-date info available, we current a significantly revised plate tectonic and paleogeographic mannequin for the Indian Ocean bordering continents, from Gondwana’s Middle Jurassic break-up by to India’s collision with Asia in the middle Cenozoic.
Utilizing a mega-regional dataset that includes over 20,000 km of on- and offshore 2D seismic lines and 12 wells, we illustrate three totally different levels of fault formation and basin evolution in the Caribbean arc-South American continent collisional zone.
The modelling also suggests that India’s northward passage in the direction of Asia, with eventual collision at 35 Ma, involved the NE nook of the sub-continent making a glancing contact with Sumatra, followed by Burma from ~ 57 Ma (late Paleocene) onwards, a situation which is compatible with the fossil record indicating that India-Asia faunal exchanges started occurring at about this time.
Strain partitioning also begins to play an important role as indirect convergence continues, accommodating deformation by the formation of parallel, strike-slip fault zones and backthrusting (southward subduction of the Caribbean plate beneath the South Caribbean deformed belt).