PaleogeographyLogin untuk menambahkan video ini ke playlist. Transpressional deformation related to indirect collision of the Caribbean arc migrates diachronously over a distance of ∼1500 km from western Venezuela in Paleogene time (∼57 Ma) to a zone of lively deformation in the japanese offshore Trinidad area.

The volume of water locked in these ice sheets was about 17 million cubic miles (70 million km3), which lowered the sea stage about 98 toes (130 m) and moved the shoreline out to the sting of the continental shelves-the area of low-lying land rimming the continents and covered by fashionable seas.

Northward flexure of the South American craton produces a foreland basin between the thrust front and the downward-flexed continental crust that’s initially filled by clastic sediments shed both from the colliding arc and cratonic areas to the south.

This closing stage of arc-continent collision is characterised by: 1) complete slab breakoff of the northward-dipping South American slab; 2) east-west extension of the Caribbean arc as it elongates parallel to its strike forming oblique normal faults that produce deep rift and half-grabens; three) continued pressure partitioning (strike-slip faulting and folding).

Paleogeographers who have based their research on geochemi-cal options include the Soviet scientists A. P. Vinogradov, L. V. Pustovalov, A. B. Ronov, G. I. Teodorovich, I. S. Gramberg, and L. A. Guliaeva and the American scientists W. Krumbein and R. Garrels.