Science In Context
Paleogeographic reconstructions of the New Zealand landmass and offshore sedimentary basins from the Cretaceous to present day are illustrated in a collection of eight maps (after King et al. 1999, King 2000). Later, the Seychelles-Mascarene Plateau and nearby elevated sea-floor areas may have allowed faunas to cross between southern India and Madagascar in the Late Cretaceous, from round 85-65 Ma, with an early Cenozoic extension to this path forming because of the Reunion hot-spot trace islands growing on the ocean ground to the SSW of India.
Due to the elevated thickening at the cratonic margin in the neighborhood of current-day central Vermont, Massachusetts and Connecticut, the southeastern most portion of ancestral North America developed a rapidly subsiding peripheral foreland basin prematurely (the cratonic aspect) of the growing accretionary wedge.
Proof to this point means that ferns and seed crops have existed since newest Devonian, that conifers first appeared close to the end of the Carboniferous, and that flowering vegetation appeared in vital numbers during the Early Cretaceous.
Paleobotany focuses on fossil plants; paleoclimatology tries to reconstruct the climates through which historical plants and animals lived; paleoecology seeks to answer questions about how ancient life-kinds associated to at least one one other in their shared environments; and paleogeography has the position of describing the situation of those environments on a changing international map.
Finally, we contend that a quantity of biologically-based direct terrestrial migration routes which were proposed for final 15 m.y. of the Cretaceous (Asia to India; Antarctica to Madagascar and/or India) can probably be dismissed because the marine limitations, seemingly various from > one thousand up to 2500 km, have been just too wide.