A geographic map of the world as it appeared during Devonian time would show a just about unrecognizable planet. The continents can, although, be dismembered into microcontinents, and maps adjusted by proof of connections and splits between organisms, climate as indicated by characteristic rocks (e.g., coal, or fossil sand dunes), and geological activity. During the Pleistocene Ice Ages, great ice sheets, or glaciers, extended from the poles to about 40 to 45°N latitude in North America and Europe.
Such analysis determines the way of life and the habitat of crops and animals of the geologic previous and identifies parts of basins and their connections with adjacent seas. As subsidence slows in the foreland basins, sedimentation transitions from a marine underfilled basin to an overfilled continental basin.
The deep drilling of the ocean floor that was begun in 1968 made attainable the direct reconstruction of the paleogeography of the oceans. Paleobotanists base their studies on the precept that the present is the important thing to the past; they apply characteristics and behavior of modern plants to historical plants.
Andrusov’s research laid the foundations of paleoecology, whereas Arkhangel’-skii’s analysis marked the origin of the comparative lithological school of paleogeography. Vegetation are also involved within the formation of oil deposits and are helpful in figuring out the suitable sites for exploration and drilling.
For example, paleogeographic evaluation of sedimentary basins plays a key function in the discipline of petroleum geology , because the ancient geomorphological environments of the Earth ‘s floor are preserved within the stratigraphic record.